The Continued Creation of Cherry Beach (featuring 1935)


TD Bank Robbery, Queen & Logan, Toronto Star, August 14, 1964

TD Bank Robbery, Queen & Logan, Toronto Star, August 14, 1964, page 1

Streetcar demolished, Globe, November 18, 1904

Queen Street East crossing looking north – [1890s]
Queen Street East at the Grand Trunk Railway crossing by Degrassi Street. View is looking north-west on Queen Street East.

The north side of Queen Street East near Degrassi Street, facing the Grand Trunk Railway’s Riverdale Station.
The north side of Queen Street East facing McGee Street, adjacent to the Grand Trunk Railway’s Riverdale Station, visible on the left of the image.
The north side of Queen Street East at the Grand Trunk Railway crossing by Degrassi Street. View is looking north-east on Queen Street East. Visible in the background is the Dunlop Rubber factory.
Queen Street East and Degrassi Street. View is looking north-west between 1920 and 1926

Mugg’s Island Golf Course: To Be or Not to Be

By Joanne Doucette

While researching material for an upcoming book on the history of Toronto’s golf courses, I found myself with a huge amount of material even for one small golf course — that on Mugg’s Island. Every writer has to know how to cut and what to leave in and then find an editor to cut even more! Some suggest that I should just “stick to golf” and leave out some of the more controversial aspects of sports history such as anti-Semitism, racism and sexism. Some suggest that to explore these is just “identity politics”. Even the largest social media site will not allow me to publish what I’m putting here today as they consider it offends community standards. But I’m plunging ahead because I need your feedback. Read on!

Toronto Island – January 1, 1917
Mugg’s Island, January 1, 1917

Muggs Island, also known as Mugg’s Landing, is part of the group of Islands collectively known as “Toronto Island”. Landfill operations had expanded the island from 11 to 47 acres of sand and brush by 1920. Taking advantage of this, William George Whitehouse, a young English engineer who lived on Centre Island, laid out a makeshift 18-hole golf course on Mugg’s Island in 1921.[1] It lasted only a few short summers. However, it wasn’t the first make-shift course there.

Mugg’s Landing, the vaudeville show, Brantford Daily Expositor, October 3, 1888

It was a group of campers, in fact, who gave Mugg’s Island its name. In the 1880s four carefree bachelors – Chester Hughes, Jack Crean, Warring Kennedy and Jack Lye (who later became the Monarch of Mugg’s) – pitched their tent near one William Burns’ icehouse. The lads used to row, paddle or sail to work each day. One time, when rowing back from the city, they spotted a sign floating on the water, which had been tossed out after a play at the “Royal” that had closed. They towed the cast-off sign to their tent site and proudly erected it. The name of the play – and subsequently of their camp and its wild little island – was “Mugg’s Landing.”[2]

North from Mugg’s Landing, April 8, 1911

In the 1890’s John George “Jack” Lye, and his friends got permission to build a cabin on Mugg’s Island. The young men also built their own nine-hole golf course there – cutting holes in the sand with their jackknives just as Toronto Golf Club members were doing in the East End. The Mugg’s Island golfers were young, but not poor boys. They were the sons of Toronto’s elite, some of whom belonged to the Toronto Golf Club, like Colonel Sweny and the Cassels, also had summer cottages on the Island. Lye recalled, “A group of young fellows who chummed around together, including our leader Warring Kennedy and myself, were asked by Warring’s dad, Mayor Kennedy, to build a camp on the island and to keep away undesirables. This we undertook to do.”[3]

Muggs Island, 1921

However, after World War One, Mugg’s original stopped coming, leaving “King John” Lye to rule Mugg’s Island alone. The golf course he and his friends laid out had not been used since the young men went off to war in 1914-1918. Some, such as Chester Hughes, never came back, dying in the trenches. Their course disappeared into the tall grass and poison ivy. Recalled young golfer George Hevenor, “It wasn’t really golf. We just chipped balls out of sand into tin cans.”2 Later, as a member of the Summit Golf Club, Hevenor won the club championship four times. Alongside representing Canada on two occasions as a member of Canadian Seniors Golf team, Hevenor also became a director of the Royal Canadian Golf Association. Not bad for a kid whose early experiences of the game were fostered on Mugg’s Island.

However, the story was far from over. Islanders have a well-earned reputation for being persistent. If at first you don’t succeed, try and try again – at least six times!

In 1928 a spokesman for Stanley Thompson, proposed a nine-hole public course on Mugg’s Island at a cost of $45,000. The course could also be expanded to 18 holes by extending the layout across Long Pond using a pull-boat to get golfers across, but plans fell through.

Centre Island’s Manitou Hotel, December 8, 1945 TPL Collection

In 1930 William James Sutherland, secretary of Centre Island’s Businessmen’s Association, again proposed building a nine-hole course on Mugg’s Island to the City of Toronto Parks Committee. Sutherland owned the Hotel Manitou “for Gentiles of refinement” and the proposal was on letterhead with that slogan on it. Alderman Sam Factor immediately tackled the anti-Semitism. By this time the Jewish population of Toronto was about 50,000, and not to be ignored. Other city politicians opposed the proposal. Nevertheless, the City of Toronto Parks Commission negotiated with golf architects Millar and Cumming to lay it out.

Sam Factor, newly elected alderman, Globe, January 2, 1929

That spring the T.T.C. opened a miniature golf course at Hanlan’s Point. It lasted only one season.

Three years later “Gentiles Only” signs went up at Balmy Beach and Jewish and Italian men and women fought Nazis and Swastika Club members in a public park — the infamous Christie Pits Riots. That year Hitler became Chancellor of Germany and the first Nazi concentration camp, Dachau, opened.

Gentiles only Toronto Island sign Toronto Star, March 29, 1930
Toronto Star, August 2, 1933
Anti-semitic riot at Christie Pits park – August 16, 1933
Discriminating Signs Banned on Island, Globe, February 4, 1934

By 1936 when the Toronto Island Ratepayers’ Association met in Hotel Manitou and Sutherland again lead the move to build a nine-hole course on Mugg’s Island, Sam Factor was Toronto’s only Liberal Member of Parliament. Lobbying for the course continued through 1937, but anti-Semitism left a sour taste that the City of Toronto just wouldn’t or couldn’t swallow as World War Two loomed on the horizon. However, other golf clubs also barred Jews as well as Black Canadians and other visible and not so visible minorities.

Toronto Star, June 23, 1937

In 1939 George McCordick proposed building a 3,000-yard nine-hole course and a clubhouse on Mugg’s Island. The Parks Committee turned him down. By this point “King John” Lye was old. The golf course he and his friends laid out had not been used since the young men went off to war in 1914-1918. Some, such as Chester Hughes, never came back, dying in the trenches. By 1944 when King John Lye died there were few traces of their Mugg’s Island course left.

In 1949 Parks Commissioner Walter Love began negotiating to buy the old York Mills golf layout for a municipal golf course.The Parks Commission considered other sites, including Mugg’s Island, but a bridge would be needed to Centre Island and the plan fell through.

In 1956 the new Metropolitan Toronto took over control of the Toronto Islands. There was again a proposal that Mugg’s Island be turned into a golf course and, again, it got nowhere.  

Miniature golf, Centre Island, June 1964

In 1963 Metro Parks Commissioner Thomas “Tommy” Thompson created an amusement park at Centre Island with a miniature golf course. This mini-putt still operates.

[1] Toronto Star, June 15, 1921

[2] Sally Gibson, More Than an Island (Toronto: Irwin Publishing, 1984), pp. 98-99

[3] Toronto Star, June 18, 1966


Brooklyn Avenue: Some Resources from the Early Days of the Street (Updatd October 22, 2022)

By Joanne Doucette (liatris52@sympatico.ca)

This post includes:

  1. The Owners & Real Estate Developers
  2. Maps
  3. An Assessment Roll, 1897
  4. List of landowners owing back taxes
  5. City Directories
  6. 1891 Census

The Owners & Developers

Typical Ontario brickyard 1880s

In 1884 when the area was still Leslieville there was no Brooklyn Avenue and it is not listed in the 1885 Polk’s City Directory or the 1886 Polk’s City Directory.  A real estate company owned by James Armstrong and John J. Cook sold most of the property on the street. Brooklyn Avenue was named for a small creek that ran down through it, across Queen Street and down to Ashbridges Bay. Brickmakers followed the banks of these rivulets to look for deposits of the blue clay that they could use to make good bricks. Brooklyn Avenue ran through two brickyards. John Russell owned the brickyard on the west side of Brooklyn Avenue and David Wagstaff owned the brickyard on the east side.

John Russell Globe, July 5, 1902
James Armstrong, Brooklyn Avenue, pavement, Globe, May 4, 1886
Lots sold on Brooklyn Ave, Globe, June 24, 1886
Lots sold Brooklyn Ave, Globe, February 15, 1887
Lots sold Brooklyn Ave, Globe, March 26, 1887
Lots for sale, Armstrong & Cook, Globe, November 8, 1887
Lots for sale, Globe, February 18, 1888
lots for sale, Globe, July 21, 1888
Lots for sale cheap, Globe, August 27, 1892
James Armstrong, Armstrong & Cook dead, Globe, October 13, 1919
Both John Cook and James Armstrong died very wealthy men. James Armstrong, Armstrong & Cook, will, Globe, December 4, 1919
Realtor mourned John J Cook, Armstrong & Cook, Globe, June 5, 1933
The women of the family rarely get a mention. She was an exception and must have been an exceptional woman. Mrs John J Cook obituary, Globe, March 28, 1935


1851 map showing the area before the construction of the Grand Trunk Railway (now the GO Train line). The Holy Blossom Cemetery is on Pape Avenue.
1860 map shows the new Grand Trunk Rail line. George Leslie’s nursery is in the lower right, but he had not yet made his fortune and purchased the Widmer property on the west side of Jones Avenue or the Beaton property on the right.
Brooklyn Avenue doesn’t yet exist in 1884
Goad’s Atlas Plan, 1884
Plan of the City of Toronto 1885 Brooklyn Avenue area. Three creeks ran through the area. Holly Creek on the left crossed Gerrard and Carlaw Avenue. Leslie Creek in the middle gave Brooklyn Avenue its name — “brook” meaning a small creek and “lyn” from “linn” — A waterfall or cataract, or a ravine down which its water rushes https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/linn#English The creek on the right is Hastings Creek.
1888 Plan of the City of Toronto and Suburbs by Penson, showing a new street: Brooklyn Avenue

Assessment Roll, Brooklyn Avenue, 1897

1890 Assessment Roll p. 47
1890 Assessment Roll p 48

Often property owners were slow, sometimes very late, in paying their property taxes. Brickyard owners and those with connections at City Hall made a practice of this at times. John Russell found that sometimes too late was really TOO LATE. When he didn’t pay his taxes on one of his many brickyards, the City of Toronto seized it for back taxes and sold it to create an industrial park on Carlaw Avenue that still stands today albeit re-invented as condos and boutiques. Russell fought it all the way to the Privy Council in London, England, but lost. Below is a list from the Toronto Star of November 4, 1897, of those property owners who were in default of their taxes. Many were absentee landowners, holding on to lots as investment opportunities.

Tax arrears, Toronto Star, November 4, 1897

Assessment appeals, Armstrong & Cook, Globe, June 9, 1897

City of Toronto Directories, 1887-1899

1887 City Directory
1888 City Directory







1891 Census


Building Leslie Gardens

From 1836 to 1837 workers had straightened and planked the Kingston Road. It became a toll road, providing a reasonably good route for transporting products in and out of Toronto. Here, in 1842, Scottish gardener and tree grower, George Leslie, leased 20 acres of land from Charles Coxwell Small for a 21-year term. George’s landlord, Small, a member of the Family Compact and Clerk of the Crown, was the owner of extensive lands in the area. (Coxwell Avenue is named after him.) Small may have thought he got the better of the deal when he found someone foolish enough to lease his 20 acres of mucky swampland on the shores of Ashbridge’s Bay. The Toronto Nurseries was built on a tamarack-covered swamp (Larchmount Avenue recalls this). These 20 acres of rich black mud were the core of his nursery which would expand to 200 acres, the largest in Canada. George Leslie did not buy that land until the lease ran out in 1863. Then Small demanded an exorbitant price from Leslie and apparently got it. George Leslie valued that soft, rich dark muck and others recognized its worth, as shown in the Annual Report of the Bureau of Forestry for the Province of Ontario.

The memory of the tamaracks and reeds remained for decades. Marigold Gardens, the subdivision on Toronto Nurseries land, was nothing but “bulrushes and swamps”. Ward 8 News. “Short Stories of Leslieville” in Ward 8 News, February 9, 1979. Marigold Gardens is one street in the former Leslie Gardens subdivision built by realtor and contractor H. Addison Johnston.

Leslie Nurseries 1884 I’ve added notes and marked where the creeks were.
George Leslie attributed to John McPherson Ross ca 1907. John McPherson was a poor Scottish boy when George Leslie took him on as an apprentice. He rose to become foreman of the Toronto Nurseries and Leslie’s right-hand man. After George Leslie died, his sons made unwise investments, became embroiled in scandal, and lost the Toronto Nurseries. Most of it become housing, but a small portion along Eastern Ave continued under the ownership of John McPherson Ross. Caroline Avenue at the west side of Leslie Gardens is named after George Leslie’s first wife.

George Leslie died on June 14, 1893. George Leslie left a large estate with considerable real estate, including properties on Queen Street East, on Jones Avenue, on Curzon Street, on Eastern Avenue, and on Leslie Street, worth almost $115,000 in 1893. Not long after George Leslie died most of the Nurseries was sold. Before long most of the land was mortgaged to the Gooderhams and sold off around 1910. Some Leslie descendants still remember the grudge against the Gooderhams who “took” their land; others remember how like prodigal sons, John Knox and his brother George Leslie Jr., between the two, spent like millionaires, gambled, drank and womanized. The Leslie family’s loss was another family’s fortune.

Success Came by Giving People Made-to-Order Homes, The Canadian Builder and Carpenter, April 1916
H. Addison Johnston had made a name for himself building high-end homes in the Beach. He gained a reputation quality — “honestly built”… “genuine Johnston-built homes.” Toronto Star, March 1, 1919
The economy was still in the grip of a depression and Toronto City Council was hesitant about incurring more costs to provide work. Councillor Gibbons nailed it when he said, “These men are going hungry. We have been at this since last September and nothing done.” The municipality had few choices: make-work projects, welfare (the dole) or hungry, angry veterans who had already demonstrated that they could and would riot. But Council took a risk and agreed to put the sewers for Leslie Gardens out to tender. Addison Johnston was a canny man and an experienced builder and developer. Toronto Star, February 2, 1922
Leslie Gardens sat on the easternmost section of George Leslie’s Toronto Nurseries. A semi-bungalow was a house with a second story with slanted walls to the rooms –not full head-height walls. Globe, December 16, 1922
Globe, January 24, 1923
The Roaring Twenties was beginning to roar finally after the economic downturn that followed World War One. Globe, February 27, 1923
Leslie Gardens School construction, Globe, March 20, 1923
City Council approved laying the sewer system for Leslie Gardens at a cost of $63,618. Globe, April 17, 1923
Addison Johnston’s house-a-day plan explained. Larchmount was a new street in 1923 and built up quickly as was the rest of Leslie Gardens. Johnston used pre-fabricated or kit homes and an assembly line approach to putting them up. The fact that they were put up quickly does not mean that the construction was shoddy. However, because Leslieville Gardens was built on an old marsh at the edge of Ashbridge’s Bay, some of the houses may have settled and/or may have problems with wet basements. The black wet marsh mud was great for George Leslie’s nursery but didn’t necessarily make for the best residential building sites. Globe, May 10, 1923
Sales Larchmount Avenue Globe June 4, 1923
Globe, July 31, 1923. A building boom took off in the spring of 1923 after a short but sharp post-war depression and houses at 66, 68, 72 and 84 Larchmount Avenue sold quickly.
Looking east on Moseley Street with the Leslie Gardens Service Station on the left.

“The market for small house properties continues to be very active.” Toronto Real Estate News Aldridge and Leslie Gardens, Globe, July 21, 1923

This is a photo of the Leslie Gardens gas station on Eastern Avenue and Mosley Street, just west of Leslie Street. The view is looking east towards Leslie Street. The Leslie Garden’s Service Station’s address was 780 Eastern Avenue
42, 60 and 70 Larchmount Avenue were sold. The lots were narrow with 16 feet of frontage on the street but long at 100 feet. Toronto Star, July 26, 1923
photo from the 1970s
Globe, July 31, 1923
Leslie Gardens Service Station, Imperial Gasoline, ca. 1929
Toronto Star, August 13, 1923. Most of the new home buyers worked in the factories along Eastern Avenue and up Carlaw. To supplement their income and pay a portion of the mortgage, many let rooms or took on boarders.
Globe, August 17, 1923
Leslie Gardens, 1970s
The school was completed but the Board of Education needed to level the playground and parking area. Globe, October 31, 1923
Leslie Gardens, 1970s
Leslie Gardens school opens, Globe, December 4, 1913
Leslie Gardens School, 1923 (probably on the opening day) and Bruce Public School, 2014
Leslie Gardens 1924 included the east side of Caroline Avenue, Larchmount Avenue, Berkshire Avenue, Rushbrooke Avenue, Marigold Avenue (now Marigold Gardens) as well as the triangle of land at Eastern and Leslie Street.
Building the infrastructure of the Roaring Twenties, Toronto Star, January 18, 1924
photo from the 1970s
Leslie Gardens house for sale, Toronto Star, June 13, 1924
Leslie Gardens School was renamed Bruce Public School, June 28, 1924
Globe, July 1, 1924
Leslie Gardens, 1970s
Globe, October 2, 1924
Leslie Gardens, 1970s
For rent Globe, October 29, 1925. Some of the houses in Leslie Gardens were built for investment income and rented out.
Leslie Gardens, Toronto Star, March 11, 1926. In the early days of subdivision development, an investor or group of investors or sometimes a real estate company bought up a block on land and sold sections of 6-12 houses to builders. This was not true for Leslieville Gardens. Most of the houses there were built for and by Addison Johnston. However, 570 feet of street frontage was a sizeable amount of land enough for 20-30 houses.
Leslie Gardens, 1970s

Leslieville News: December 31 The Toronto Viaduct

Union Station and the Viaduct Toronto Star, December 31, 1924
Union Station and the Viaduct Toronto Star, December 31, 1924
Union Station and the Viaduct Toronto Star, December 31, 1924
Canadian Railway and Marine World September 1913
Toronto Star, Friday, July 11, 1924
Viaduct work, destruction of stores, Queen & De Grassi. – December 9, 1925
Viaduct work, destruction of houses, Strange St.. – December 9, 1925
Viaduct work, fill on east back of Don. – December 24, 1925
Viaduct, Riverdale, trestle for fill. – October 7, 1926
Construction Toronto Viaduct Toronto Star Oct 9 1926
Construction Toronto Viaduct Toronto Star Oct 9 1926
Viaduct construction Globe, Oct. 20, 1926
The first train on the new viaduct, Globe, September 24, 1927
Viaduct opening, Canadian National Railways crew: Brakeman Ryckman, Baggageman Cox, Conductor Huff, Engineer Brown, Fireman Franks. – January 21, 1930

Leslieville News: December 30

A pulmonator, 1913 being used to revive a victim
Carbon monoxide poisoning, McGee Street Toronto Star, December 30, 1941
Carbon monoxide poisoning, McGee Street Toronto Star, December 30, 1941
Old Coal furnace photo by Peter Baer ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)
Carbon monoxide poisoning, McGee Street Toronto Star, December 30, 1941
Carbon monoxide poisoning, McGee Street Toronto Star, December 30, 1941
Carbon monoxide poisoning, McGee Street Toronto Star, December 30, 1941
Eastern Avenue Bridge, December 30, 1932

The Difference Between a Local Historian and an Academic Historian

By Joanne Doucette

Do you enjoy reading local history? Would you like to know more about the past of your neighbourhood? If you do, please read this.

Most, but not all, people who research and write about the history of neighbourhoods do not have advanced academic degrees, such as the very Harry Potterish picture of Professor John Ashley Soames Grenville, historian, taken in 1950 (Public Domain) featured above. The local historian is, like me, an amateur not a professional.

Many academic historians look down on local historians as muddlers who don’t get the big picture. And sometimes that is true, but often not.

Local history is a very democratic kind of practice, drawing on community histories (e.g., in the local history collections of our branch libraries), family history, genealogy and oral history. The best local history relies on meticulous and careful use of original and secondary sources as well as ongoing discussion with professional historians. But local historians have limited resources. Not everyone has the money to get those letters behind the name. We do not have access to the records, the peer-review process, conferences and journals of the academic historian. We rely on sources and our works are published informally – on blogs, Facebook groups, etc. My peers are those who read my posts and blogs and respond. And I am very grateful to you. But I rely on sources and sources are not always right.

There are basically two kinds of sources – primary sources and secondary sources.

A Census is an example of a primary source.

Primary Sources

Primary sources are things like newspaper accounts, letters, marriage licenses, death certificates, baptismal certificates, tax assessment rolls, etc. They are usually reliable but have to be “handled with care”. Sometimes original sources contain simple mistakes. Sometimes the originator actually lied. Sometimes they didn’t know what they were talking about. Not so different than today. Usually, the records are biased in ways that we now recognize – racist, sexist, etc.

This is an example of a secondary source. The writer of the caption was not there in 1783 when King George presented the fire engine. Fire Engine, Maclean’s, September 1, 1929

Secondary Sources

Secondary sources are records written after the event. The writers rely on records that they might not understand or they may not have researched adequately. Or they too can intentionally distort the truth, often with “little white lies” that romanticize things – the “good old days”, etc.

The story of my family’s mixed MI’kmaq and European ancestry is oral history passed down by word of mouth through the generations depicted here. Family photos: Susan Brewer (nee Doucette), Thomas Leo Doucette and Agnes Lucy (nee Devenish) and Thomas Vincent Doucette.

Oral History

And then there’s oral history. Memories fail and stories passed down often begin to stray from the facts though there’s usually a core that can be verified through researching primary and secondary sources – which leads me back to where I wanted to go.

An original baptismal record confirming the Indigenous roots of my family

Why am I saying all this?

When the Leslieville Historical Society wrote up a plaque to the Underground Railroad two years ago, we made a mistake. The quote didn’t begin to appear until 2007. We relied on secondary sources, even a leading U.S. politician, and the Harriet Tubman Monument and other apparently reliable sources for the following quote:

A contemporary illustration of Harrriet Tubman

“Every great dream begins with a dreamer. Always remember, you have within you the strength, the patience, and the passion to reach for the stars to change the world.” -Harriet Tubman (1822-1913)


The Harriet Tubman Monument, Beaufort, South Carolina, from a Global News report


But, as a Toronto historian brought to my attention, Harriet Tubman said no such thing.

Here’s the back story. We did our best three years ago in terms of due diligence, believing our sources were valid and checking with various authorities, including some friendly folks with PhDs. We also ran the wording by the Ontario Black History Society which suggested some changes which we duly made. They shared generously of their time and sent representatives to the unveiling. While they gave us the go-ahead, the responsibility lies with us and more particularly me.

Here’s a quote from Harriet Tubman in a book from 1869 that we could have/should have used.:

“When I found I had crossed that line, I looked at my hands to see if I was the same person. There was such a glory over everything; the sun came like gold through trees, and over the fields, and I felt like I was in Heaven”.

Harriet Tubman

Sometimes, as when I wrote a small paragraph about Black World War one hero, Jeremiah Jones seven years ago, I did not have access to primary sources. I found nothing in the news of 1914-1920 about him and could not access his military records as they were not digitized yet.

So, I followed the lead of the CBC and noted that he was wounded at Vimy and Passchendaele. The journalist apparently relied on family history as recounted by a descendant, Adam Jones.


Jones was wounded at Vimy Ridge but not the other battle. (Yesterday I downloaded his military records online and double-checked.)

The Historian as Detective by Matt (CC BY-NC 2.0) FlickR

We work diligently to uncover lost histories but ask for fairness and respect for the work we get right and the service we provide to our communities. It is fair to ask for some courtesy when our sources fail us.

Public shaming is far from helpful and comes across as an attempt to silence. If local historians were to be silent, then the stories of ordinary families on ordinary streets would be lost. And I for one think that would be a shame because all families are extraordinary and all streets have stories to tell. We need to respect each other.

To quote a perceptive article:

“The academic historian is the discipline expert. They therefore have a responsibility to provide leadership. They should inspire amateur historians to increase their standards of scholarship. This needs understanding, trust and encouragement from academics. Not paternalism.”

The Conversation, April 3, 2012


This photograph is from the Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America and has no known copyright restrictions.


A Local Historian & Oral History

Biography: Kathleen Adams, a graduate of Atlanta University in 1911, taught in the public schools of Atlanta for about 34 years, and also at the Carrie Steele Pitts Home, an institution for the care of orphans. She retired from teaching in 1957. A member of one of the prominent Black families of Atlanta, Mrs. Adams showed an early interest in history. She has preserved the history of her family in documents and memorabilia and has made tapes for the local historical society on the history of the Atlanta public schools. At the time of her interview, she was the historian and oldest active member of the First Congregational Church in Atlanta. 

Description: The Black Women Oral History Project interviewed 72 African American women between 1976 and 1981. With support from the Schlesinger Library, the project recorded a cross section of women who had made significant contributions to American society during the first half of the 20th century.

Photograph taken by Judith Sedwick 

Repository: Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America. 

Collection: Black Women Oral History Project”

Back to photostreamSchlesinger Library on the History of Women in AmericaFollow


November 9: Leslieville’s History

In the distance can be seen the Canadian Chewing Gum factory, makers of Chiclets. The photographer took this shot from the railway line into the backyards during the construction of the raised railbed that they called “the Toronto Viaduct”.
This scene shows the raised rail bed under construction and the old rail bed next to it, as well as two women taking a dangerous but commonly-used shortcut.
Disputing their property taxes seemed like an annual game in the old East End, including Leslieville. Globe, Nov. 9, 1895
Rolph Clark Stone’s employee newsletter, November 9, 1948

The Firefighters of Toronto, The Canadian Magazine, Vol. 20, no. 1 (Nov. 1902)

Horse-drawn fire wagon with water tank, Bloor Street West. – 1912\
Fire Hall # 12 Bolton Avenue
Three of the many firefighters killed in the line of duty, The History of the Toronto Fire Department, 1924
Horse-drawn fire reel, Bloor Street at Queen’s Park Crescent. – [1912?]
Horse-drawn fire wagon with hose and water tank. – [1910?]
Three of the many firefighters killed in the line of duty, The History of the Toronto Fire Department, 1924
Three of the many firefighters killed in the line of duty, The History of the Toronto Fire Department, 1924
Horse-drawn fire reel, Avenue Road. – [1908?]
Horse-drawn fire wagon on Avenue Road. – [ca. 1908]
Horse-drawn fire wagon with ladder. – [ca. 1907] Item consists of one photograph, possibly showing North Toronto Fire Department on Montgomery Avenue. *** Local Caption *** Item consists of one photograph, possibly showing North Toronto Fire Department on Montgomery Avenue.
HORSE-DRAWN LADDER WAGON courtesy of Chuckman’s Other Collection

The Wrigley Factory: Carlaw Avenue

Palmolive site with Wrigley Bldg & Rolph Clark Stone background. Aug. 2, 1917. Library and Archives Canada.
North Wrigley Building, Dec. 5, 1916. Library and Archives Canada.
South Wrigley Building. No date. Probably spring, 1916. Library and Archives Canada.
Goad’s Atlas, 1923. Dundas Street was not built through the East End until the mid-1950s.

Leslieville Roots: The Roothams

I wonder how many in our neighbourhood have Red Seal builders in their family trees?

There is a small clue in this rather mundane article from the Toronto Star of October 25, 1917.

Lewis Rootham was a contractor who built many of the houses on the lower of Woodfield, Connaught and neighbouring streets. But he wasn’t just any old kind of contractor: he was a Red Seal builder. (see article below)

Toronto Star, May 27, 1935

Some years ago, I had the opportunity to speak with one of his descendants and here is a transcript of part of that conversation:

“Lewis Rootham built the house in the early 1900s. He talked about the area being like old English countryside at first with grass and creek that ran into Ashbridges Bay. His dad and uncle used to swim there. He talked about Ashbridge who were said to be United Empire Loyalists with connections to royalty. The Ashbridges were deeded a lot of land, but my dad thought Jesse Ashbridge a bit odd because he cut the grass in the rain. My dad said the whole atmosphere of the neighbourhood changed with the relentless advance of civilization. He cited three major steps in the area’s development. First, stores opening on the south side of Queen Street, bringing more people to the street. Next, came the building of the TTC car barns and yard. That changed the atmosphere from that of the English countryside to mechanical. Then, the building of the big school north of the Ashbridges place, the Duke of Connaught, started a building boom. The Ashbridges kept 200 feet of frontage [on Queen Street]. He described the houses on one side of Woodfield Road (the Rootham house is at 42 Woodfield Road) as being low-class row houses, but said the other side had pretty good houses. He said his grandfather’s house was big, but unique in design because it had multiple levels. Master, living and front hall were on one level, but you went down two steps to dining and kitchen; up to bath and two bedrooms and up again to two more bedrooms. It was a great big house with only one bathroom. He remembers the fireplace as marvellous and the wood panelling and brickwork, all in classic English styling. He said times were tough later and his grandfather replaced the backyard with garages he could rent out to people with automobiles to have some money. He said the driveway was cinder and he was always getting hurt on it.”

Toronto Star, May 27, 1935

Balmy Beach Postcards

By Joanne Doucette

I love collecting these old postcards. Most are from my collection though some are no longer in my file of old fragile paper things. Due to the rarity many go from that drawer in my desk to libraries and archives. Some I also give away as Christmas stocking stuffers for friends. I should also note that in many cases, rips, tears, fingerprints etc. have been carefully removed. In my youth retouching photos was one of my occupations. Joanne

Balmy Beach Toronto 1900

There was no colour photography as we know it at the beginning of the 20th century. Postcards were carefully hand-painted, usually by women. While this makes every postcard a little different, it also means the quality of painting varied greatly. Some were pretty slapdash; others meticulously done. Most of these postcards have lived quite a life after they left the painter’s easel. Some were put away in drawers and, in 2021, are pristine. Most were left in sunlight and yellowed as the cheap paper they were printed on acidified. Some were handled more or less lovingly, with worn corners, tears, fingerprints and smudges. Others were mailed and got worse handling and all too often have traces of postmarks on the front. It is one of the most inexpensive but enjoyable of hobbies.

Balmy Beach Club, Balmy Beach Park, foot of Beech Ave., 1900

This is the actual black and white photograph from which the postcard was produced and it is easy to see “how much was lost in translation.”

Postcard Balmy Beach Club 1920s
It seems that painter was not up to the challenge of the dog in the centre or was interrupted. I think of this as “The Ghost Dog of Balmy Beach”, gone but perpetually happy and wet.

Goodbye to a local land mark

By Joanne Doucette

Leslie House at Jones and Queen (north east corner) torn down Telegram October 20, 1923
Globe, May 6, 1893 showing a separate entrance for his office
George Leslie’s house at the north east corner of Queen and Jones (undated, but probably early 1920s). The verandah and main entrance faced on Jones. Originally the main entrance was on Queen Street.
The stores that replaced the Leslie house, 1986
Goad’s Map 1910. I have added labels.

October 14: more deaths and soon come the anti-maskers, etc.

By Joanne Doucette

Edvard Munch, Self-Portrait of the Artist with the Spanish Flu (1919)
More Flu deaths at the training camp at Niagara-on-the-Lake, The Gazette, October 14, 1918
Personal protective devices, home-made by medical staff themselves
Flu deaths in Ontario The Gazette, Oct. 14, 1918
Medical authorities warned the public…
…but early on the information was not always correct, undermining credibility
American anti-mask rally, 1919 Public Domain
Edvard Munch, The Scream
Sled dogs rescue man Globe, February 1, 1919
Andrew Coulter, 128 Curzon St Toronto Star, March 12, 1919
Andrew Coulter, 128 Curzon St Toronto Star, March 12, 1919
Many simply stayed home and coped as best they could
People wiped surfaces rigorously with strong disinfectants, Saturday Evening Post, March 29, 1919
Promises, promises
Statistics deaths in Toronto for 1918, Toronto Star, May 15 1919
In this the second wave, hospitals quickly filled up again and the shortage of nurses was again acute.
The Pandemic’s impact on the supply chain, Globe, January 2, 1919
Flu back in Toronto The Gazette, Jan. 12, 1920
Mixing different kinds of vaccines to combat the Pandemic, The Canada Lancet, April, 1919
The official voice of Canadian doctors, Canada Lancet, supporting vaccination, November 1919
Dr. Charles Hastings, appointed by the Province of Ontario and not answerable to Toronto City Council, strongly supported vaccinations
Anti Vaccination League, Toronto Star, November 18, 1919 Dr. Hastings, the City’s Chief Medical Officer of Health, supported compulsory vaccination. Vaccines against influenza had been invented but were not widely available.
Anti-vaccination Rally on the Steps of the Toronto City Hall
Globe, November 20, 1919
Globe, November 20, 1919
Edvard Munch, Self-Portrait of the Artist after the Spanish Flu 1919
Inside cover, Maclean’s, April 2, 1955: a cartoon criticizing people who diagnosed themselves and picked and chose new medicines according to their misconceptions

October: The Month from Hell

page 1033 of Ontario Sessional Papers, 1919, No.26-41 Public Domain

If you lived in Toronto in the fall of 1918, you probably had a great sense of hope for a better future. The Great War to end all Wars seemed to be coming to an end. The Allied forces, including Canadian battalions, were sweeping back Germans along the Western Front.

Canadians returning victorious from The Battle of Courcelette, September 1916, Library and Archives Canada

Yet the men in the trenches were worn out. Casualties, both dead and wounded, were still high. The country was split over conscription and recruitment and training were ongoing. Men packed into military camps and aboard troop ships to Europe just as returning soldiers, mostly wounded, packed ships heading home.

First aid being rendered to wounded at Courcelette September 1916

Conditions for civilians “Over There” were horrendous as refugees tramped the roads, families cowered in basements and starvation stalked the towns and countryside.

The Survey April-September 1920, p 350 Public Domain

And rumours of a new mystery illness had been appearing in letters from overseas and in the newspapers since the previous winter. China was diving into an epidemic and sick soldiers were beginning to die — Americans, British, Canadians, Australians, Indians, Africans, Russians, Germans, Austrians, Italians. The new illness seemed to be a form of the flu that once it took hold often progressed to a deadly pneumonia in an age without antivirals or antibiotics.

Globe, Jan. 5, 1918
Globe, January 17, 1918

In Toronto, cases of pneumonia began to appear here and there in the papers. Often the victims were young and healthy with no preexisting conditions. These cases were not yet identified as influenza. But those who read the paper knew something dark was on the horizon. The military would be the vector, flu’s main line across the globe and to Toronto.

Flu kills Ulster team player Toronto Star May 13 1918
Riverdale Camp, 1915
Camp Kosciuszko, Niagara-on-the-Lake
Flu in Polish camp at Niagara Globe, Sept. 18, 1918

In mid September cases of influenza began to appear among the Polish soldiers at the Canadian Military training camp at Niagara-on-the-Lake. “Lieut.-Col. Le Pan does not anticipate any serious results from the epidemic.” Authorities seem to take the deaths of Josef Zabezyk and Kazinners Kolonaki, both Polish Americans, the first deaths, lightly. But were officials simply trying to reassure the public? This was wartime and the army authorities knew full well what was going on in Europe. Propaganda was “part and parcel” of war.

Some propaganda was worse than others,: a lot of it was sexist and much of it was racist, though Canadians of European ancestry wouldn’t have seen it that way at the time. Indigenous people maybe not so much. I wonder what the Cree syllabics say.

A week later the flu was in Toronto, but no deaths had yet been identified. Chief Medical Officer of Health, Dr. Charles Hastings, offered guidelines to help prevent infection and spread of the new illness. Some are familiar to us 103 years later: avoid crowds, wash your hands, get outside (breathe pure air). Others seem downright weird: breath through your nose, chew your food well, “don’t let the waste products of digestion accumulate” (don’t be full of shit), avoid tight shoes. But the Pandemic of 2020-2022 offers advice just as useless and more dangerous: inject yourself with chlorine bleach, take pills vets prescribe for cows and horses, don’t get the COVID vaccine, diagnose and prescribe for yourself and your family, etc.

Toronto Star, Sept 23, 1918
Toronto Star, Sept 23, 1918

By September, Toronto had its first official flu death. Some schools were in quarantine as were some military centres in the city. Dr. George W. Ross was prescient.

Keep Away From Coughers Take No Chances, Cough Drop ad to prevent flu, Public Domain

People tried everything they could think of including cough drops to prevent getting the flu. They opened windows on streetcars and in homes, but dark jokes began to spread.

We opened the winda

And in flu Enza.

Masks were initially not recommended and then medical recommended them and soon political authorities mandated them. And some resisted.

Illustrated Current News, 1918, Collection National Library of Medicine Public Domain
Public Domain

Growth was exponential as Toronto entered the October from Hell.

Triaging in Toronto, Vancouver Daily World, Oct. 7, 1918
Flu makes orphan Ivy Avenue, Toronto Star, Oct. 11, 1918

October 12, 1918 Toronto’s Day from Hell

By October 12, the hospitals were triaging, turning away patients they thought might have a chance of survival or just accepting patients on a first-come-first-served basis. Doctors and nurses were not seeing those we would think would be least likely to survive: elderly, frail people and young children and infants. Those who were dying were, overwhelmingly, young and healthy men and women, in all neighbourhoods including older areas in the East End such as Riverside, Leslieville and Todmorden and new neighbourhoods spreading across the farm fields of the Ashbridges, Charles Coxwell Small, the Sammons, Cosburns and others. Even the new cottage communities along the Beach were not spared.

October 12, 1918, Toronto’s Day from Hell, began.

Influenza spreads across Toronto, Influenza deaths Toronto Star, Oct. 12, 1918
Some of the many deaths from influenza at the Niagara Military Camp and the Toronto General Hospital on College Street.

Like now, there simply were not enough trained and qualified doctors, nurses and other staff to care for the seriously ill. Voluntary in this case did not mean unpaid. Those doing the hands-on work of cleaning, feeding, and caring were then and now paid low wages and themselves falling prey to the Pandemic of their time.

Appeal for Volunteers Flu Toronto Star Oct 12 1918
The Gazette, Oct. 12, 1918

A temporary lockdown began.

Lockdown begins, Dr. Hastings, Toronto’s Chief Medial Officer, The Gazette, Oct. 12, 1918
Deaths rise Toronto, The Gazette, Oct. 12, 1918

Dr. Hastings arranged for supplies and beds for overflow facilities. Big business began to move to combat the Pandemic.

No more movies, The Gazette, Oct. 12, 1918