ON A WHEEL: A Trip for Cyclists in Eastern Suburbs, 1894


A Trip for Cyclists in Eastern Suburbs.


Beauties of Nature Which Many Miss.


A Run From Little York to Wexford.

The Agricultural Wealth of York County viewed From the Saddle of the Bicycle.

1895 Mights Toronto Directory

1895 Mights Toronto Directory

It is questionable if one out of every ten of those in this city who possess bicycles really appreciates a quarter of the opportunities for enjoyment which it places within his reach, and it is certain if he does that he makes little attempt to improve them.

With the average rider the question of largest moment seems to be that of covering the greatest amount of space in the least possible time, and in the runs into the country which he takes once or twice a week the terminal point of his trip, and the desire to reach it as soon as possible, usually possesses his mind to the exclusion almost of everything else. He is carelessly conscious, perhaps, of a pretty country through which he may be passing, but he is so indifferent to such matters that no considerations of this kind would tempt him to deviate from the straight road leading to his goal.

18900000 Toronto Bicycle Club

1890 Toronto Bicycle Club

There are many, too, who are not constantly attempting to make or break a record, and who in their leisurely journeys succeed in obtaining all the benefit and delight which a healthy exercise and charming surroundings can give them, but who always keep to the same beaten track over which they repeatedly pass, oblivious to the fact that there is a wealth of scenic beauty lying all about them if they would only rouse themselves to seek it out.

Royal Canadian Bicycle Club 1899

Royal Canadian Bicycle Club 1899

There are indeed few cities which contain in their outskirts so many delightful spots as does Toronto.

Toronto of Today creek

Ravine Toronto

To the north, the west and the east are successions of wooded ravines, and, running along the hilltops above them shaded and, in the main, well-made roads, from which may be obtained in hundreds of places outlooks over lake and stream and meadow too beautiful for the brush of any painter adequately to portray.

All the enjoyment, whether real or fancied, which can be gathered from contact with nature and from communion with her in the secret recesses of her home, are obtainable by the people of Toronto if they would but care to know what they possess. To the bicycle rider, especially during the long summer days, these charming places should be as familiar almost as the street on which he lives. A number of the points will be indicated in other articles, and in the meantime, several of the favorite runs on the wheel will be spoken of.

1898 Cyclists Map

Detail, 1898 Cyclists Road Map of the County of York


Among the popular trips from the city is that along the Kingston road to Whitby, to which place and back again a fair rider can “wheel” without fatigue in one day.

18940113 GL Kingston Rd Queen Junction

Globe, Jan. 13, 1894

The road throughout almost is good; here and there occasionally heavy, and in some places cut up by the traffic which passes over it, but in general such as no bicyclist can reasonably complain of.

Michael Hannaford, Scarborough Heights, 1883

Michael Hannaford, Scarborough Heights, 1883

The most difficult part of it, by reason of the hills which have to be climbed, is that from the Woodbine to Highland Creek, but this, too, is the prettiest portion, containing many charming bits of scenery, and having in view the broad, blue stretch of the lake to the right.

Kingston Rd, looking south-west, Norway School

Kingston Rd, looking south-west, Norway School

Leaving the Woodbine, what is, perhaps, the least agreeable piece of the journey is immediately met with.

19180407 NARCH Wagons collided on hill on Kingston Road, Toronto, Ontario. April 7, 1918. Library and Archives Canada

Wagons collided on hill on Kingston Road, Toronto, Ontario. April 7, 1918. Library and Archives Canada

This is the half mile hill at Norway, which is certainly full of ruts at the present time and anything but pleasant wheeling especially to experienced riders. A good shower of rain, however, remedies this, and also lays the heavy dust; and when in this condition no better place could be found for practice in hill-climbing.


To the left of this hill, along which the electric road to Victoria Park runs, the deep and thickly-wooded ravine presents as charming a bit of scenery as could well be wished for, but at this point the rider is usually too much occupied to give it the attention it deserves.

Half-Way House, Kingston Road. - [1920?]

Half-Way House, Kingston Road. – [1920?]

At Norway the climb and the ravine both terminate, and an excellent run is offered to a considerable distance beyond the Halfway House, almost eight miles from the city.

18940113 GL Palisade Park

Globe, Jan. 13, 1894

On the short stretch from Norway to this point the road is gradually rising till the rider can command a view of the lake from the elevation of Scarboro’ Heights and especially on a fresh summer morning, before the heat of the day brings fatigue with it, the sight presented is worth a hundred-fold the labor of the run. The strong, fresh breeze from the water, carrying with it the odor of the fir trees over which it blows from the shoe; the awakening voices of the new day and the half-solitude of the country make up a condition of things the pure delight of which those who have never experienced it are unable to imagine.

18940113 GL The Lake Front

Globe, Jan. 13, 1894

At the Halfway House the rider usually halts for refreshment, and, perhaps, for breakfast or dinner. Many there are, too, who in the morning or evening run out here for the short trip, and when this is the case it is not unusual for them to seek the lake shore and enjoy a dip in the water. At this point, however, the land is some hundreds of feet above the level of the water, and the descent to the shore is somewhat of a task. From the Halfway House to Highland Creek numerous hills are met with, and one of them especially taxes the strength of the riders to surmount, but once over this part of the road the run to Whitby is easy and rapid.

18960425 GL Toll house Rouge River Kingston

Toll house Rouge River Kingston Road, April 25, 1896

The return trip is especially pleasant by reason of the fact that a great portion of it is down grade.

Cycling club in Swansea, Toronto, Canada, 1899

Cycling club in Swansea, Toronto, Canada, 1899


Instead of gong on to Whitby from the Halfway House, the rider, if he chooses, can take the side line across to the Don and Danforth road, and run by it to Woburn. This road is on the whole superior to the Kingston road, being built of excellent gravel, and not being cut up so much as the other, over which a far greater amount of travel continually goes. If the bicyclist should take this road, however, he would do better by running up Broadview avenue where he meets it, take the sidewalk as far as it goes, and soon on through Little York, than by way of Norway, as he would by doing so avoid the heavy climb at the half-mile hill. From Little York half way to Scarboro-station a long ridge of gravel on the centre of the roadway, placed there for purposes of repair, renders this part not quite as good as the rest of the way, but with reasonable care a path on either side can be picked out by the rider.

1890s Danforth

1890s Danforth

These two roads, however – the Kingston and the Don and Danforth – are well known and continually travelled by bicyclists.


House in Milne Hollow 1884

House in Milne Hollow 1884

A trip that offers many attractions and can be accomplished in a few hours is from Little York straight north to the pleasant hamlet of Wexford, about three and a half miles’ run, and, after crossing the bridge over the C.P.R., west along the side line to Millen’s Hollow, nestling beneath the hills which enclose the east branch of the Don, up the opposite bank, and along for some miles further to the west fork of the Don, and on to the second concession, which is a mile and a quarter from and runs parallel with Yonge street; due south along the second concession to Moore Park road, and by way of Reservoir Park to Yonge street.

Highlands of Toronto Moore Park

This run is principally over clay roads, and there is no more accommodation, by the way, than is afforded by forest shade and the pure water from the farm house pumps, but the trip is only a matter of from fifteen to eighteen miles and can be covered leisurely in two hours.

Artwork on Toronto, 1898, Reservoir Park

Artwork on Toronto, 1898

The roads are excellent during dry weather, except at the passages of the river, where the rider will find it to his advantage to dismount, at least in descending into the valleys, as the highway at these spots is steep, circuitous and rocky. After rain the road will be found less easy and pleasant to run on, as the farmers’ waggons are apt to cut it up while the clay is soft. The whole road, however, is full of interest to a visitor from the city, and the crossings at the river are picturesque in the extreme.

Artwork on Toronto, 1898, Scene on the Don River

Artwork on Toronto, 1898

The run form Little York to Wexford gives one a fairly good idea of the excellence and wealth of the County of York as an agricultural section. The houses of the farmers are substantial brick structures, erected with some attention to style and possessing pleasant and tasteful surroundings. The growing or ripening crops evince the richness of the soil, and the sleek and contented stock show the care which they receive at the hands of their owners. The same condition of things, indeed, prevails all along the route, broken only by the wide and untillable valley of the river.

Female cyclist wheeling bicycle up muddy hill on St. Clair Avenue West. - 1907At the point at which the Don is reached jut about Millen’s Hollow the river makes almost a half circle, opening up a wide stretch of valley, along which between the branches of the trees one catches glimpses of the running water. It is indeed a pleasant place, seated in the shade, from which to enjoy the cool breeze and pretty picture, after a sharp run.

Wheel outings in Canada and C.W.A. hotel guide women

C. E. Doolittle editor, Wheel Outings in Canada and C.W.A. Hotel Guide, 1895


In the hollow beneath is Millen’s factory, in which blankets and other woollen goods are made, and where the families who live there rejoice in coolness in summer and shelter from the blasts of winter. The road up the opposite bank can be made in the saddle by a good rider, but the average man will find more comfort and quite as much satisfaction in walking. The road to the other fork of the Don is somewhat sandy in places, but otherwise good.

Artwork on Toronto, 1898, Reservoir Park

Artwork on Toronto, 1898

Once across the other valley and on to the second concession there is a fine road and a beautiful run to the turn to Moore Park.

1893 Woodbine GTR Bicycle ClubFrom the highway the rider catches a magnificent view of the southeastern portion of the city over the ravines running through Rosedale, and the eye travels with pleasure over house and garden and church steeple and away across the lake, dimly descrying the line of coast on the other side.


Toronto Bicycle Club, 1890

The sidewalk, of generous size and in good repair, which was laid down along Moore Park road during boom days, makes good way for the rider, and he takes it without hesitation, knowing that in that spot he is little apt to meet any pedestrians. A stop at Reservoir Park for a cup of water, a short run down Yonge street, and a two-hours’ pleasant ride is brought to a conclusion.

Globe, August 2, 1894

18870600 Canadian Wheelman No. 8

Smith’s Grounds: A Lost Riverside Athletic Field

Smith’s Grounds: A Lost Riverside Athletic Field

Residence of John Smith

J. E. Middleton, Municipality of Toronto, Vol. 1, 1923

As I was preparing for a talk on the lost sports fields in the East End, I had a weak spot – I knew little about Sunlight Park, Toronto’s first professional baseball stadium just south of Queen and west of Broadview, built in 1886. I, as usual, began at the beginning before the start of settler history and long before baseball, but not lacrosse. The Anishinaabe families and Kichigo who were here when Simcoe arrived with William Smith, a master carpenter, in his retinue.

Sometimes history can seem by and about people who are almost-automatons, people doing things but without souls. But some writers have the gift for prose that captures so much. One such writer was John Ross Robertson, editor of The Toronto Telegram.

History of Toronto And County of York, Vol. II, Toronto C. Blackett Robinson, 1885 portraits

From The History of Toronto And County of York, Vol. II, Toronto C. Blackett Robinson, 1885.

To animate this story of the John Smith’s lost athletic grounds I include a quote from John Ross Robertson’s Landmarks, apparently drawing on interviews with the Smiths, as well as depictions of some of the Smith family and their home. Their farm would become the Toronto Baseball Grounds later renamed Sunlight Park, an industrial complex around the time of World War One, and, as I write, contractors are digging a deep hole on the site to build Riverside Square, a complex of apartments, boutique shops, etc. that will re-define the whole area.

William Smith Sr. built many of York’s first houses, the first Anglican church (the forerunner of St. James Cathedral), Castle Frank, the Don Bridge, and helped to lay out York which became Toronto in 1834. According to John Ross Robertson, William Smith Sr. was not the only builder who came from Nova Scotia to York with Simcoe:

That these early log and frame houses have stood in such good condition down to the present time is due mainly to the excellence of their construction. Among the men whom Governor Simcoe brought with him to build his embryo city were timbermen from Nova Scotia and other lower province expert hewers and dovetailers of logs, and Englishmen skilled in whipsawing and cutting joists and rafters.

John Ross Robertson

As a reward for his work, Simcoe allowed William Smith to be the first to choose a building lot for a home in York. He picked a fifth of an acre at the corner of King and Sherbourne. There Smith built a log cabin as a temporary home. In 1794 he tore it down and built a new frame house on the eastern side of his lot. This was believed to be the first frame house in the new settlement. That fall he went back to Niagara-on-the-Lake to stay with his family for the winter.

Scadding, John, cabin, Don R., e. side, s. of Queen St. E., 1888, artist unknown, TPL

John Scadding’s cabin, Don River, east side, south of Queen St. E., 1888, artist unknown, Toronto Public Library Digital Archives


Henry Scadding, 1885, rector of Holy Trinity Church (1847-1875) and historian, son of John Scadding. Toronto Public Library Digital Collection.

John Scadding, father of the Rev. Dr. Henry Scadding, Anglican priest and author of “Toronto of Old,” also came with the Simcoes to Toronto. He had been their estate manager in England. William Smith Sr. helped to build the Scadding cabin beside the Don River in 1794. In 1796 the Government granted John Scadding all of farm lot No. 15 on the Don River.

Simcoe had a fractious relationship with his superior Governor Dorchester in Quebec City and, in 1796, was recalled and returned to England, taking his family and faithful and no doubt indispensable servant, John Scadding with him.  Before Scadding sailed away, he put George Playter in charge of his property east of the Don and Playter and his family moved into Scadding’s log cabin. Around this time an orchard had been planted, with trees imported from the U.S. Lot 14, just to the east was granted to John Cox. In 1807 Mary Cox, the widow of John Cox, sold Lot 14 to Gerhard Kuck for £156 in 1807. In 1814 William Smith’s son, also called William, bought the 270-acre Lot 14 from the Kucks for £1250.

Scadding, John, cabin, Don R., e. side, s. of Queen St. E., by Elizabeth Posthuma Gwillim Scadding 1795

John Scadding, cabin, Don R., e. side, s. of Queen St. E., by Elizabeth Posthuma Gwillim Scadding 1795. Scadding’s Bridge over the Don is on the left.

 In 1817, John Scadding came back to York. He laid out a subdivision of one, two, three and five acre lots on his property north of Queen Street [Kingston Road, as it was called then]. He sold the lots and, in 1818, George Playter bought one of the lots north of Queen just east of the Don and build a storey-and-a-half frame house, and 18 x 32 feet [5.4 x 9.7 meters]. The next year William Smith Jr. bought all of Lot 15 south of Queen about 50 acres [20 ha] from Scadding. Smith Sr. died in 1819 in his town house at King and Sherbourne. William Smith Jr. took up his father’s contracting business on his death. That year William Jr. bought Lot 15 south of Queen Street, about 50 acres [20 ha], from John Scadding. This was an excellent location for his favourite sport, hunting, with easy access to Ashbridge’s Bay, a stop over point for many thousands of migrating waterfowl as well as the high pine-covered plains and ridges that Henry Scadding described so well:

Southward in all the distance was a great stretch of marsh with the blue lake along the horizon.  In the summer this marsh was one vast jungle of tall flags and reeds, where would be found the conical huts of the muskrat, and where would be heard at certain seasons the peculiar gulp of the Bittern…

Looking n.w. to Toronto skyline in left background by John Willson 1899

Looking n.w. to Toronto skyline in left background by John Willson 1899, Toronto Public Library Digital Collections

About the dry, sandy table-land…the burrows of the fox, often with little families within, were plentifully to be met with.  The marmot, too, popularly known as the woodchuck, was to be seen on sunny days sitting up upon its haunches at holes in the hillside.  We could at this moment point out the ancient home of a particular animal of this species whose ways we used to note with some curiosity.  Here were to be found raccoons also; but these, like the numerous squirrels–black, red, flying, and striped–were visible only towards the decline of summer when the maize and the [nuts] began to ripen. 

At that period also bears, he-bears and she-bears accompanied by their cubs, were not unfamiliar objects wherever the blackberry and raspberry grew. 


In the forest, moreover, hereabout a rustle in the underbrush and something white seen dancing up and down in the distance like the plume of a mounted knight might at any moment indicate that a group of deer had caught sight of one of the dreaded human race and, with tails uplifted, had bounded incontinently away.

In 1820 William Jr.  built a tannery on the Don. Not long after that he opened a store in an extension of the family home at King and Sherbourne, branching out as a retailer. Not long after the tannery began operating, he opened a store in an extension of the family home at King and Sherbourne, branching out as a retailer. After William Smith’s wife, Julianne Lewis, died in 1827, George Playter sold William Smith Jr. his new frame house and Smith moved it across the street to his own property. Settlers were skilled at moving buildings and frequently did so, to the confusion of later historians. This move was particularly easy since the ground was quite flat. Initially tannery employees lived in the house and, at some point, Smith built an 18 x 13 feet [5.4 x 3.9 meters] addition on the east side of the building to house more of his workers.

Map, 1872, showing the Smith home and orchard, south of Queen Street and just east of the bridge over the Don River.

1872 map showing the Smith home and orchard as well as Subdivision Plan #150, the original source of the Don and local streets.

William Smith Jr. ran the store until 1832 when he moved from King and Sherbourne to the frame house beside the river. An astute businessman, his store was successful, winning him the capital to buy up a large amount of real estate and hold it on speculation. William Smith Jr. died in 1839 at the age of 58. John Smith, born at the family home at King and Sherbourne in 1811, as the oldest surviving son, took over the family business and inherited the property. In 1846 John Smith married Mary McGarran. They had nine children (I can’t find records of all – not surprising with high infant mortality.) He moved to Lot 15 on the Don where he farmed and also dealt in real estate.

Grand Trunk Railway

Building the Grand Trunk Railway between Toronto and Montreal.

In 1852 the Grand Trunk Railway (GTR) incorporated with the goal of building and operating a rail line between Montreal and Toronto. In 1856 John Smith sold a strip of his property to the GTR and by the end of the year, the GTR reached the eastern bank of the Don River and the Montreal to Toronto line opened. By the next year  John Smith had divided Lot 15 into two fields, separated by a new street, later called “Pioneer Avenue”, which ran south from Queen street. It later became known as “Baseball Place”. The field east of Pioneer Avenue was subdivided under Plan 150 with Smith Street running on a north-south axis again dividing that eastern field into two sections.

As the Smith family grew, John added more extensions to the house until the whole first storey of Playter’s house was the Smith’s sitting room. A prize family heirloom was a tall “grandfather” clock, made by Jordan Post, an early settler. At the time it was believed to be the first clock made in York, now Toronto. Family portraits graced the parlour, the formal reception area, at the east end of the house.John Smith Portrait

In 1866 John Smith leased some 30 acres of his property on Ashbridge’s Bay to Gooderham Worts and they moved their cow byres (barns) east across the Don. He also leased some of his property to a race track a pottery. The 1871 Dominion of Canada Census showed John Smith (59), Mary (40), Rebecca (20), William John (18), Joseph (16), Henrietta (13), Mary (10), Sarah (8) and Edward (6) living in the frame house built by George Playter over 50 years before. John and William John Smith were listed as farmers.

18790715 GL Scadding cabin John Smith

Globe, July 15, 1879

Parkdale and Riverside began to slowly develop in the 1870’s to the west and to the east of the city limits. Parkdale has large detached houses, the homes of Toronto business and professional men attracted by the healthy lake air and lower tax rates. Riverside also had lower taxes but was less desirable, in part because of the unhealthy reputation of Ashbridges Bay and the sewage from the cattle sheds south of Front Street. Riverside became a residential area for workers in the factories along the Don and the eastern waterfront. The area east of the Don began to be laid out in roads: Eastern Ave, Blong, Saulter, Carlaw, McGee, Lewis, Morse, Strange, Scadding, DeGrassi, and Heward. However, in 1873 the “Long Depression” began with a stock market crash and the economy didn’t fully recover until 1896.

John Smith’s subdivision plan 150 and some other developments failed to materialize. Growth was slow, but there were changes. In 1878 the Christie Brothers started the Don Rowing Club, on the west side of the Don River across from John Smith’s home on the east side. By 1878, the Don Mount post office was on the northeast corner of Smith’s property, at Queen St. E. and Broadview Avenue. William John. Smith, John’s son, worked there as a clerk. None of his sons took up farming, leaning more to the real estate and financial professions.

John and Mary Smith’s oldest daughter Rebecca (married to Walter George Willis) passed away on March 22, 1878, in the Smith family home, at the age of 30 after two years of fighting pulmonary consumption or tuberculosis as it is now called. Around this time, John Smith planned on tearing down the old Scadding cabin of 1794. Instead, in 1879, Smith gave it to the York Pioneer Society who moved it by oxcart to the Exhibition Grounds where it still stands.


The York Pioneers, 1879. Photographer unknown.

In 1880 Queen Street was opened from Woodbine Race Track to the Scarborough Township boundary at Nursewood Road. In 1882, the streetcar tracks were extended from Parliament to the Don and connected to the Queen Crosstown route.  The stables were built on the south side of King at River to accommodate the streetcar horses.

By this time, “Uncle John”, as Smith was known locally, allowed his neighbourhood and their sports teams to use his two fields south of Queen as an unofficial athletic field. Like his father, he was a sports man himself, a proficient cricket player and a founding member of the Toronto Curling Club which played on the Don conveniently near the Smith home.


The Red Jacket Rink of the Toronto Curling Club curling on Toronto Bay in 1870. Copy photograph (coloured with water colour) of composite photo. Played on the Don River, Toronto, 1870. The players were: 1, Mr. Garvey; 2, Duncan Forbes, roofer; 3, Capt. J. T. Douglas, marine inspector; 4, Capt. Chas. Perry, commission merchant; 5, Charles G. Fortier, marine insurance inspector; 6, Major Gray, of No.1 Rifle Co., Hamilton, subsequently in Customs Department, Toronto; 7, David Walker, of the American Hotel, later of the Walker House, Toronto; 8. T. McGaw, of the Queen’s Hotel; 9, J. Pringle, insurance agent; 10, John O. Heward, who resided on Bloor street, opposite Church; 11, R. H. Ramsay, produce dealer

His son, William John, would become a Director of the Toronto Baseball Association. In 1884, the first “World Series” marked a milestone in baseball history which was now beginning to become popular in Canada. That year residents of Riverside and Leslieville approved a referendum to join the City of Toronto and the City annexed the area to Greenwood Avenue.

18900000 Baseball Grounds Goads Atlas 1890 Plate 47

Baseball Grounds Goads Atlas 1890 Plate 47, showing also Base Ball Place and Subdivision Plan 105.

In his later years, John Smith was known as a story teller, blessed with an excellent memory, a good source for those interested in local history.

18831026 GL Football John Smith's field

Globe, Oct. 26, 1883

His love of sports and his son’s interest in baseball laid the way for his lease of his fields to the Toronto Baseball Association, a group of enthusiastic “cranks”, as fans were known in the day. On May 24, 1886, the Toronto Baseball Grounds opened on Smith’s fields.



The cover of the 1886 Toronto Baseball Association’s pamphlet and game schedule, showing a Toronto Baseball Club player (possibly Jay Faatz) in the club’s at home uniform.


Since the Toronto Baseball Club disbanded a movement has been on foot to organize a new club to represent Toronto in this popular game. A meeting will be held in the Rossin House on Tuesday night, when it is expected there will be a large attendance of those interested in the formation of a club that will be a credit to the city. Every effort is being made to induce a number of our leading citizens to interest themselves in the club, which it is proposed to form on a joint stock basis.

Globe, May 8, 1885

18860918 GL ad Toronto Baseball Grounds

Globe, Sept. 18, 1886

In 1888 the City of Toronto expropriated part of the Smith property, including the area where family home stood, to straighten the Don River.

REF-1888-Don River Styraightening

Lower DonThe old Smith house was torn down and John Smith build a new brick house on higher ground further east and nearer to Queen Street (about where my doctor’s office is today). In 1889 John Smith engaged the architects John W. Mallory and Frank S. Mallory to design the Smith Block at 639-655 Queen St. E.

Heritage Property Research and Evaluation Report Attachment 9 p21

Heritage Property Research and Evaluation Report, Attachment 9, p. 21. The house in the distance may be the one that John Scadding built to replace the earlier frame house.

“The Smith Block”  today remains, without its pivotal centre section, on the south side of Queen just east of the Queen Street Bridge.  Owner John Smith died on September 24, 1890 before the Smith Block was completed. He was buried in St. James Cemetery. His will left $611,000 of which $600,000 was real estate.

1899 Globe Birds Eye View Labelled

1899 Birds Eye View from The Globe with labels added.

In 1900 Lever Brothers built their Sunlight Soap factory on property sold to them by the Smith heirs, property that included the fields of the Toronto Baseball Grounds. In 1902 the ball field became Sunlight Park. In 1906 a syndicate of Buffalo investors, the Erie Real Estate Company, bought the baseball park and initially planned to develop Subdivision #150 as housing, but heavy industry proved more lucrative and the field was lost to the community and largely forgotten to history until recent years.



Adam, G. Mercer, Charles Pelham Mulvany and Christopher Blackett Robinson, History of Toronto And County of York, Vol. II, Toronto C. Blackett Robinson, 1885, pp. 147-149

City of Toronto By-Laws No. 1995-0569

City of Toronto Directories, 1834 ff

Decennial Census of Canada, 1861, 1871, 1881

Don Valley Conservation Report Toronto, Department of Planning and Development, Conservation Branch Library, 1950

Globe, May 25, 1882 ff

Goad’s Insurance Atlas, 1882, 1884, 1890

Heritage Property Research and Evaluation Report Attachment 9

Middleton, J. E.,Municipality of Toronto, Vol. 1, 1923

Nickerson, Janice. York’s Sacrifice. Toronto: Dundurn Press, 2012

Robertson, John Ross, Landmarks of Toronto, Vol. 1, Toronto: J. Ross Robertson, 1894, p.136

Robertson, John Ross. The Diary of Mrs. John Graves Simcoe, wife of the First Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of Upper Canada 1792-6, with notes and biography. Toronto: Ontario Publishing Company, 1934

Scadding, Henry. Toronto of Old. Toronto:  Adam, Stevenson & Co., 1873. Reprinted with  Ed. Frederick H. Armstrong.  Toronto & Oxford:  Dundurn Press, 1987

Seven Sketch Sheets of a Winter Reconnaissance in the Country East of Toronto, 1868. Map Room, Robarts Library

Tremaine’s Atlas, County of York, 1860

Robertson, John Ross. Landmarks of Toronto A Collection of Historical Sketches of the Old Town of York from 1792 until 1833 and of Toronto from 1834 to 1893, Published from the Toronto “Evening Telegram” Toronto: J. Ross Robertson, 1894. Vol. 1, p. 136

Sauriol, Charles. Remembering the Don. Scarborough, Ont.: Consolidated Amethyst Communications, 1981