Source: Picturing Little India
All the photos above were from the City of Toronto Archives. This information tells me where to find the photo and similar photos and whether I can legally use this photo.
Archival citation: Fonds 200, Series 1465, File 383
Title: South Riverdale
Date(s) of creation of record(s) 1975-1988
Physical description of record(s) 25 transparencies : col ; 35mm
Forms part of
Fonds 200; Former City of Toronto fonds
Series 1465; Urban Design photographs
Scope and content
File consists of images of Little India along Gerrard East, and the Canada Metal Company building on Carlaw at Rushbrooke, as well as houses in the area.
Dundas St E (Toronto, Ont.)
Riverdale (Toronto, Ont. : Neighbourhood)
South Asian Canadians
Record consists of
OPEN – No restrictions on these government records.
Copyright is held by the City of Toronto….more
To request records at the archives
Please fill out the Records Request Form available at the Reference Desk, indicating:
Location: Spadina Records Centre
First of all it identifies the work. It also tells you how to find it (and similar photographs) and how to use it legally.
I’ve been using other people’s photographs for years, but I’ve also worked in the copyright field – only as a lowly clerical. It did sensitize me to the nuances of using other people’s work.
Make no mistake about it – photographs, drawings, paintings, cartoons and other forms of visual media are work. Someone made them, usually with a great deal of thought and care.
That someone owns them. I took the picture below so I don’t need permission to use it. But anyone else would. Even though it doesn’t say “copyright” on it or identify “Joanne Doucette” as the photographer, it is my work and my property.
To use photographers and other visual images without permission can be, in many cases, against the law.
As an artist myself, I consider use of my work without permission as theft, pure and simple. It’s no different from someone going into my backyard and hauling off a sculpture I made.
So I am careful about how I use and where I use other people’s work.
All businesses, non-profits and individuals that use photographs need to know about the risks (potential liabilities) involved.
This blog is my own point of view and definitely not a legal summary. More about copyright law is easily available on line. For more about copyright, this is an excellent summary.
If in doubt, don’t use or talk to the copyright owner, often, in my case, the Toronto Public Library or the City of Toronto Archives.
You don’t need permission to use an image (photograph, painting, drawing, etc.) if the copyright has expired. In Canada, the copyright for a work usually expires 50 years after the death of the creator of the artwork, at the end of the calendar year that the creator died. The work is then copyright free or “in the Public Domain”.
For example, famous Canadian photographer William James died in 1948. His work was under copyright until the end of December 1998. After that it was copyright free and still is “in the Public Domain.” This photo below of golfers and a young caddy on the Toronto Golf Club links at Upper Gerrard and Coxwell is “in the Public Domain”. It is still a courtesy to identify the source — in this case, the City of Toronto Archives.
Famous photographer Yousuf Karsh died in 2002. His photographs won’t be copyright free until the end of December 2052. I will be one hundred years old then so I don’t expect to be posting any of his photos ever.
The photo above is also from the City of Toronto Archives and is in the Public Domain. That means anyone can use it, even for commercial purposes. It is still an apartment building but instead of having an appliance store it has an Islamic bookstore.
Also, for example, Harald Bauder and Angelica Suorineni wrote “Toronto’s Little India: A Brief Neighbourhood History”. It has excellent photos by Peter Scott. The Toronto Public Library owns the copyright for Peter Scott’s photos. I do not have permission to use them but could if they were for “fair use” including educational purposes. To see them download the PDF of the book. It is free and a great read. You can find it online easily or you can borrow a physical copy from the Toronto Public Library. This is one of the photos from “Toronto’s Little India”. I am using it under “Fair Use” as this is for educational purposes.
This is another photo of the Naaz Theatre. It also comes from the Toronto Public Library. This time I’m using it under a Toronto Star License.
Toronto Star License
Personal, educational, and research
Images from the Toronto Star Photographic Archive on display in the Digital Archive may be downloaded and reproduced in print or electronic format for personal, educational, and research use.
Commercial merchandise and marketing use
This digital image is licensed from Toronto Star Newspapers Limited. If material from the Toronto Star Photographic Archive is published, please contact email@example.com for permission.
More information on access and use of digital content
High resolution images are available for purchase from the Toronto Star Photo Sales. Please contact firstname.lastname@example.org for more information.
It is the user’s obligation to determine and satisfy copyright, or other use restrictions (such as donor restrictions, privacy rights, publicity rights, licensing and trademarks) when using images made from our collections.
Here is the information from the Toronto Public Library about this photo.
Spicy strip: Gerrard St. east of Greenwood Ave. is Toronto’s Little India. Naaz cinema (above) is focal point for 43 shops and restaurants selling Asian fare. At left; Chaat Hut owner Krishan Vig and son Ashim Vig stand outside Ashim’s Bar-Be-Que Hut; where tandoori dishes come good and hot.
Picture, 1980, English
Rights and Licenses
ProvenanceFrom the Toronto Star Archives
File Location:Canada – Ontario – Toronto – Streets and Intersections – Gerrard St
The colored photo of the Naaz Theatre was taken by Derek Flack and posted at http://www.blogto.com/city/2011/02/what_ails_little_india/
SEEK AND YE SHALL FIND…MAYBE
If you click on the links you will find more photos of “Little India” or as the local BIA prefers, the Gerrard India Bazaar such as these three below from the Toronto Public Library also under a Toronto Star License.
It also pays to search using different words for the search criteria.
So say instead of putting “Little India” into the search box at The Toronto Public Library Digital Archives I use another search term.
I got more pictures such as these below also used under a Toronto Star License.
South Asians protest against racism at recent rally at Queen’s Park. Reader urges a solution to the problem.
Picture, 1977, English
Rights and Licenses
From the Toronto Star Archives
Racial Discrimination – Canada
Toronto Star Photo Archive
Call Number / Accession Number
Immigration; South Asians in Metro feel delays are deliberate/F4
Picture, 1972, English
Rights and Licenses
From the Toronto Star Archives
Immigrants and Immigration – Groups
Toronto Star Photo Archive
Call Number / Accession Number
One final tip, never assume that the pictures you can find on line at a particular source are all the pictures available. Most are probably not on line. So it pays to contact the Toronto Public Library, the City of Toronto Archives, the Toronto Star, the Globe and Mail, etc. if you want more photos or different photos.
For more info about the Gerrard India Bazaar go to:
That smell’s the tannery; God help you in summer. If there’s one good thing, the rats can’t climb this high, but the water can – that roof hasn’t got long.
You’re not exactly selling it.
From the movie Casanova, 2005
Where did it all begin? In 1852 John Clarke opened a small tannery on the Otonabee River in Ashburnham, now part of Peterborough.
In 1882 his three sons, Alfred Russell, Frederick G., and Charles F., moved the tannery to Toronto and Alfred R. Clarke took over sole ownership. The tannery was very successful, but, besides the notoriously bad stench associated with tanneries, it had other problems, including labour unrest.
In 1893 the Working Women’s Protective Association went out on strike by at the A.R. Clarke & Co. glove factory in a fight for factory reform law and votes for women. The strike ran for about three months. Eugene Forsey, Eugene. Trade Unions in Canada, 1812-1902. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1982) 329- 300.
[Building Permits] A. R. Clarke, a three-story factory in Eastern avenue, to cost $25,000. Globe, Sept. 20, 1900 [at Beachell in Corktown]
In 1902 Alfred R. Clarke moved his tannery from beside the Don River to 633 Eastern Avenue.
A story circulated that, while Clarke was supervising raising the flag (to celebrate the end of construction) from his new building’s roof, all Toronto’s church bells rang and factory whistles shrieked. Though Clarke knew he was a prominent figure in Toronto’s business world, he was, none the less, gratified with the City’s response to his new tannery’s opening. When he got back to his office he found that the celebrations were for the end of the Boer War, not to welcome the new tannery.
ADDITIONS AND MORE ADDITIONS
[Building Permit] A. R. Clarke & Co. – One-storey brick addition to leather works, near Caroline street on Eastern avenue, $1,000. Toronto Star July 18, 1904
…a factory for A.R. Clarke & Co., Ltd., on Eastern avenue, to cost $2,000. Globe, Sept. 20, 1905
Frederick G., and Charles E. Clarke owned and operated Clarke and Clarke, tannery, while Alfred R. ran A. R. Clarke Co. The other Clarke Brothers specialized in leather pickled in brine while A. R. Clarke specialized in patent leather and fine leather products such as gloves. For a while Frederick and Charles considered building a new tannery on Carlaw Avenue.
Dr. Brown, the first speaker, said that the tannery would be right next door to his fine new residence.
“I have invested $15,000 there, the savings of a lifetime,” he said. “No one can tell me that there will be no odor from hides in pickle.”
“I am afraid it may interfere with my church, which is within 200 yards, said Rev. Mr. Frizzell of Leslieville Presbyterian church. This is a very thickly-populated residential district.”
Toronto Star, Sept. 26, 1906
“I’m glad we’re going,” said one woman.
“Why – because of the odor of the tannery?” asked The Star.
“Not that particularly. You see, there are so many odors around here that it is almost impossible to make distinguish any particular one.”
Toronto Star, Oct. 2, 1906
Toronto Star, Oct. 9, 1906
GLOVE MAKERS WANTED FOR light work; inseam and trimmer machines. A. R. Clarke & Co., Limited, 633-661 Eastern avenue.
Globe, June 3, 1913
This advertisement is from the day before a German U-boat torpedoed R.M.S. Lusitania.
Elbert Hubbard the founder of Roycroft, died on the Lusitania as well as many other celebrities and many wealthy men, women and children. Hundreds of second and third class passengers drowned as well. Alfred R. Clarke survived the sinking only to die of pneumonia afterwards. The vortex from the sunken liner sucked Clarke far under the surface. The incredible water pressure crushed his chest, puncturing his lungs.
But! What Tremendous Fleet Could Ever Have Brought Over Such an Army? – The Lusitania. July 6, 1918, Library and Archives Canada
A. R. Clarke’s son Griffith B. ran the tannery until he died in an accident in 1923. Then Clarke’s widow ran the business herself.
Heavy Water Damage at Clarke Company Fire
Heavy damage by water was done last night to the stock of the A.R. Clarke Company, manufacturers of leather goods, 633 Eastern Avenue, when water sprinklers flooded four floors of the building. A small fire started about 10.30 on the fourth floor, near a clothing room. Sprinklers were set in operation, and before fireman could shut off the water, all floors were flooded.
The superintendent of the firm stated he could not estimate the loss last night, but though it would be several thousand dollars. The cause of the fire is not known.
Globe, Nov. 6, 1926
On the death of Mrs. A. R. Clarke,in 1931, her son-in-law, W. H. Lytle became company president of the tannery until he died in 1961. The family remained involved in the business for years.
In the 1960s A. R. Clarke & Co. Limited expanded by buying The Breithaupt Leather Co. Limited of Kitchener with tanneries in Hastings and Campbellford. See the May 1967 “Centennial Issue” of Industrial Canada held in the Western Libraries at the University of Western Ontario. http://www.lib.uwo.ca/programs/companyinformationcanada/ccc-ARClarke.htm
On March 27, 2001, fire destroyed the A.R. Clarke Limited building as it was being renovated to convert it into a film sound stage. The tannery on Eastern Avenue was in receivership at the time.
Workers dismantling the pipes inside the building were welding with acetylene torches while the sprinkler system was shut off. More than 100 firefighters and more than 30 fire trucks fought the fire. Police evacuated nearby businesses and homes were evacuated as flames shot into the sky.
Spilled degreasing chemicals over the years of operation contaminated the tannery land and the groundwater.
Toronto Star, March 28, 2001
Here you will find Anna Jameson’s account of her “Voyage Down Lake Huron, in a canoe, Aug. 1837” from her best-seller. An accomplished and famour writer, she came to Canada to be …
Source: Down Lake Huron